So you want to take advantage of the power of the OpenGL API? If you are visiting this page because a game or software uses the OpenGL API, you need to install the appropriate graphic driver which enables usage of the functionality provided.
- Mac’s version is a bit more systemwide, with some older Windows dialogs still not darkened. The Windows 10 May 2019 Update adds a Custom option.
- How to Run Windows on a Mac. It's still a Windows world, and once in a while you need to live in it. Here's how to dual boot Windows and macOS with Boot Camp or virtualize Windows with VirtualBox.
To program using the OpenGL API, you need the driver and the development package (depends on platform and programming language). More platform-specific details are described in the sections below.
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This Wiki maintains a FAQ page for OpenGL.
In all three major desktop platforms (Linux, macOS, and Windows), OpenGL more or less comes with the system. However, you will need to ensure that you have downloaded and installed a recent driver for your graphics hardware.
Appropriate Windows driver websites:
Some sites also distribute beta versions of graphics drivers, which may give you access to bug fixes or new functionality before an official driver release from the manufacturer:
Without drivers, you will default to a software version of OpenGL 1.1 (on Win98, ME, and 2000), a Direct3D wrapper that supports OpenGL 1.1 (WinXP), or a Direct3D wrapper that supports OpenGL 1.1 (Windows Vista and Windows 7). None of these options are particularly fast, so installing drivers is always a good idea.
If your system does not contain a GPU, or the GPU vendor delivers graphics drivers providing OpenGL support that's so old as to be useless to you, you might want to consider installing the Mesa3D OpenGL library on your system. See this wiki link for details:
Graphics on Linux is almost exclusively implemented using the X windows system. Supporting OpenGL on Linux involves using GLX extensions to the X Server. There is a standard Application Binary Interface defined for OpenGL on Linux that gives application compatibility for OpenGL for a range of drivers. In addition the Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI) is a driver framework that allows drivers to be written and interoperate within a standard framework to easily support hardware acceleration, the DRI is included in of XFree86 4.0 but may need a card specific driver to be configured after installation.These days, XFree86 has been rejected in favor of XOrg due to the change in the license of XFree86, so many developers left Xfree86 and joined the XOrg group. Popular Linux distros come with XOrg now.
Vendors have different approaches to drivers on Linux, some support Open Source efforts using the DRI, and others support closed source frameworks but all methods support the standard ABI that will allow correctly written OpenGL applications to run on Linux.
For more information on developing OpenGL applications on Linux, see Platform specifics: Linux
Unlike other platforms, where the Operating System and OpenGL implementations are often updated separately, OpenGL updates are included as part of macOS system updates. To obtain the latest OpenGL on macOS, users should upgrade to the latest OS release, which can be found at Apple.com.
For developers, a default installation of macOS does not include any OpenGL headers, nor does it include other necessary development tools. These are installed by a separate developer tools package called Xcode. This installer includes the OpenGL headers, compilers (gcc), debuggers (gdb), Apple's Xcode IDE, and a number of performance tools useful for OpenGL application development.
For more information on developing OpenGL applications on macOS, see Platform specifics: macOS.
Writing an OpenGL Application
The first step is to pick your language. Bindings for OpenGL exist in many languages, from C# and Java to Python and Lua. Some languages have multiple sets of OpenGL bindings, none of them being official. All of them are ultimately based on the C/C++ bindings.
If you are not using C/C++, you must download and install a package or library for your chosen language that includes the OpenGL bindings. Some come pre-installed, but others have separate downloads.
If you are using C/C++, then you must first set up a build environment (Visual Studio project, GNU makefile, CMake file, etc) that can link to OpenGL. Under Windows, you need to statically link to a library called OpenGL32.lib (note that you still link to OpenGL32.lib if you're building a 64-bit executable. The '32' part is meaningless). Visual Studio, and most Windows compilers, come with this library.
On Linux, you need to link to libGL. This is done with a command-line parameter of '-lGL'.
Before you can actually use OpenGL in a program, you must first initialize it. Because OpenGL is platform-independent, there is not a standard way to initialize OpenGL; each platform handles it differently. Non-C/C++ language bindings can also handle these differently.
There are two phases of OpenGL initialization. Word processor for mac. The first phase is the creation of an OpenGL Context; the second phase is to load all of the necessary functions to use OpenGL. Some non-C/C++ language bindings merge these into one.
OpenGL Context Creation
An OpenGL context represents all of OpenGL. Creating one is very platform-specific, as well as language-binding specific.
If you are using the C/C++ language binding for OpenGL, then you are strongly advised to use a window toolkit for managing this task. These libraries create a window, attach an OpenGL context to this window, and manage basic input for that window. Once you are comfortable with OpenGL, you can then start learning how to do this manually.
Most non-C/C++ language bindings will provide you with a language-specific mechanism for creating a context.
If you are using a non-C/C++ language binding, then the maintainer of that binding will already handle this as part of context creation. If you are using C/C++, read on.
In order to use OpenGL, you must get OpenGL API functions. For most libraries you are familiar with, you simply #include a header file, make sure a library is linked into your project or makefile, and it all works. OpenGL doesn't work that way.
For reasons that are ultimately irrelevant to this discussion, you must manually load functions via a platform-specific API call. This boilerplate work is done with various OpenGL loading libraries; these make this process smooth. You are strongly advised to use one.
If you want to do it manually however, there is a guide as to how to load functions manually. You still should use an extension loader.
OpenGL is a rendering library. What OpenGL does not do is retain information about an 'object'. All OpenGL sees is a ball of triangles and a bag of state with which to render them. It does not remember that you drew a line in one location and a sphere in another.
Because of that, the general way to use OpenGL is to draw everything you need to draw, then show this image with a platform-dependent buffer swapping command. If you need to update the image, you draw everything again, even if you only need to update part of the image. If you want to animate objects moving on the screen, you need a loop that constantly clears and redraws the screen.
There are techniques for only updating a portion of the screen. And you can use OpenGL with these techniques. But OpenGL itself doesn't do it internally; you must remember where you drew everything. You must figure out what needs updating and clear only that part of the screen. And so forth
There are many tutorials and other materials available for learning how to use OpenGL, both on this wiki and online.
Java Programming On Mac
These are programs that you install and run, and they give you information specific to the OpenGL API your system implements, like the version offered by your system, the vendor, the renderer, the extension list, supported viewport size, line size, point size, plus many other details. Some might include a benchmark. Some are standalone benchmarks.
- OpenGL Extension Viewer (Windows, Windows x64 and macOS): This one comes with a database containing information about what extensions are implemented by hardware other than your own
Tutorials and How To Guides
User contributed tutorials and getting started guides
- OpenGL 3.0 and above:
- OpenGL Step by Step (using C++, FreeGLUT and GLEW)
- OpenGLBook.com Free online OpenGL 4.0 book (OpenGL 3.3 code provided wherever possible) using freeglut and GLEW
- Spiele Programmierung Windows OpenGL 3 Tutorials And Articles, Beginner to Advanced in German
- opengl-tutorial.org OpenGL 3.3 and later Tutorials
- Modern OpenGL 2012 (PDF file) by The Little Grashopper
- www.learnopengl.com: Easy-to-understand modern OpenGL tutorials aimed at beginners
- TheChernoProject (Youtube): High Quality video series for learning modern OpenGL
- Open.gl/introduction: Learn OpenGL basics
- GPGPU-D-Fourier-Transform: Introduction to compute shader
- A simple text editor using OpenGL: Showcasing use of vertex & Fragment shader to render text
- Pre-OpenGL 3.0:
- The OpenGL Programming Guide, also called the Red Book Covers OpenGL version 1.1.
- DurianSoftware.com, Intro to Modern OpenGL (en français)
- GLUT, Tutorials
- lighthouse3d.com, GL 2.0, GLSL, tutorials
- MarekKnows.com, Game development video tutorials, OpenGL, shaders, physics, math, C++, 3D modeling, network, audio etc
- NeHe, OpenGL Tutorials
- Setting up OpenGL, C++ & GLUT on Windows 7, Beginner tutorial
- Swiftless Tutorials OpenGL 1 & 2,
- Lazy Foo's OpenGL Tutorial, Covers OpenGL 2D in both OpenGL 2.1 and modern OpenGL
- Code Resources: These are small snippets of code from the web that have been useful in the past. Most of them use deprecated functionality.
- Shadow Mapping
- opengl-tutorial.org, Tutorial 16 : Shadow mapping PCF, shadow-acne/peter-panning, stratisfied sampling. GL3.3.
- paulsprojects.net GL1.5.
- ShadowMapping with GLSL shadow-acne, resolution, backfaces, border-issues. GL2+
- RenderDoc - free, stand-alone graphics debugger. Supports only the OpenGL 3.2+ Core Profile. Works on both Windows and Linux.
- Nsight Visual Studio Edition - Nsight 3.0 support OpenGL 4.2 Debugging and Profiling, along with Shader Debugging and Pixel History
- Deleaker - Deleaker for Visual Studio finds OpenGL leaks
- OpenGL Reference: All of the OpenGL 4.6 functions and what they do.
- Related toolkits and APIs: For utilities that make using OpenGL easier.
- Reference Documentation
- The Mesa 3D Graphics Library, a software renderer based on the OpenGL API.
- G-Truc Creation: OpenGL 2.1 - 4.1 Code samples
- Humus.name many demos, advanced
- Theory and General Graphics Programming
- Vendor SDKs
- http://www.opencsg.org, Constructive Solid Geometry, boolean operations with geometry
- GameDev.net, The Gamedev OpenGL Forums
- http://gpwiki.org A Wiki about Game Programming, also has GL code snippets and other APIs
Scheme is a statically scoped and properly tail-recursive dialect ofthe Lisp programming language invented by Guy Lewis Steele Jr. and Gerald Jay Sussman. It was designed to havean exceptionally clear and simple semantics and few different ways toform expressions. A wide variety of programming paradigms, includingimperative, functional, and message passing styles, find convenientexpression in Scheme.
Scheme was one of the first programming languages to incorporate firstclass procedures as in the lambda calculus, thereby proving theusefulness of static scope rules and block structure in a dynamicallytyped language.Scheme was the first major dialect of Lisp to distinguish proceduresfrom lambda expressions and symbols, to use a single lexicalenvironment for all variables, and to evaluate the operator positionof a procedure call in the same way as an operand position.By relying entirely on procedure calls to express iteration, Schemeemphasized the fact that tail-recursive procedure calls areessentially goto's that pass arguments.Scheme was the first widely used programming language to embrace firstclass escape procedures, from which all previously known sequentialcontrol structures can be synthesized.More recently, building upon the design of generic arithmetic inCommon Lisp, Scheme introduced the concept of exact and inexactnumbers.Scheme is also the first programminglanguage to support hygienic macros, which permit the syntax of ablock-structured language to be extended reliably.
MIT/GNU Scheme is a complete programming environment that runs on manyunix platforms, as well as Microsoft Windows and IBM OS/2. Itfeatures a rich runtime library, a powerful source-level debugger, anative-code compiler, and an integrated Emacs-like editor.
- MIT/GNU Schemeis available for Intel-architecture (x86) machines running GNU/Linux,FreeBSD, IBM OS/2 or Microsoft Windows 9x/ME/NT/2000/XP.
- NWWYW: 6.001 LA Manual--howto be a Lab Assistant for the introductory programming course at MIT.
Windows Programs On Mac Os
- The language specification: The Revised5 Report onthe Algorithmic Language Scheme.
Postscript (870KB);gzipped Postscript(215KB); andHTML.(HTML courtesy of Aubrey Jaffer.)The report is also available as anarticlein Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation.
- The rrrs-authors mailing list archive.
- The Scheme Requests forImplementation (SRFI) process is a new approach tohelping Scheme users to write portable and yet useful code. It is aforum for people interested in coordinating libraries and otheradditions to the Scheme language between implementations.
- Answers to frequently asked questions (last updated in 1997).
Using Windows Programs On Mac
- GUILE, GNU'sUbiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension, is a libraryimplementation of the Scheme language plus various convenientfacilities. It's designed so that you can link it into an applicationor utility to make it extensible.
- Kawa compiles Schemeinto Java byte-codes.
- PLT Scheme is an umbrellaname for a family ofimplementations ofthe Scheme programming language.
- Pseudoscheme embeds Scheme in CommonLisp.
- Scheme 48 is a small and portableimplementation based on a byte code interpreter. It should run on any32-bit byte-addressed machine that has an ANSI C compiler and POSIXsupport.
- SCM is a portable Schemeimplementation written by Aubrey Jaffer.
- Scsh, a Scheme Shell, is abroad-spectrum systems-programming environment for Unix embedded inR4RS Scheme. Runs on most major Unix platforms.
- Skij is a partialScheme implementation that is implemented in and integrated with Java.
- STk is a version of Schemewith a Tk interface.
- VSCM is aportable Scheme implementation written by Matthias Blume of PrincetonUniversity.
- The Open Directory Project maintains alisting of Scheme implementations, which is intended to becomprehensive. It includes free software, proprietary software, andarchaic implementations which are of historical interest.
- David Pilo Mansion has created a set of visual tools for theScheme programming language together with a basic interpreter. Theprogram is entirely written in Java and is intended as a visual aidfor students that are learning the functional programming language.
- TheScheme Repository at Indiana University has numerousimplementations, technical reports, and software packages.
- The CMU Scheme Repository This repository has a large overlap withthe Indiana repository.
- Schemers.org is a collection ofresources for the Scheme programming language.
- TheSchememonster's Friends is a group of computer science students atthe Helsinki University of Technology united by the interest in Scheme- and the insight that we should keep the fun in programming.
- Newsgroup comp.lang.scheme
- The SchemeUnderground is a project to develop a new, highly portableprogramming environment for Unix, the World Wide Web, and wearablecomputers.
- Scheme inEducation is a collection of links for people interested in Schemeas a tool in education.
- Algorithmic Language Scheme is a Japanese-language Scheme homepage.
- Structure andInterpretation of Computer Programs is the text book used in theintroductory programming course here at MIT.
Send bug reports and other communications concerning MIT Scheme tobug-cscheme at zurich.ai.mit.edu
Last updated 23 October 2003.This page is maintained by Chris Hanson.